The Treaty comes into operation in 1961 and guarantees freedom of access and scientific studies in all areas south of 60 degrees latitude. Reaching the South Pole first and planting a flag was a big prize for explorers from these countries. Shakelton and his crew of five men crossed the mountainous region with no supplies and no mountain climbing equipment and reached the Stromness whaling station. On November 17, American Sealer Nathaniel Palmer, captain of the ship Hero, sights the Antarctic continent and is the first American to set foot on the Antarctic continent. The Stunning Survival Story of Ernest Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition, When Hitler Sent a Secret Expedition to Antarctica in a Hunt for Margarine Fat. 1912 – Robert Falcon Scott, Bill Wilson, Henry “Birdie” Bowers, Edward Edgar Evans, and Lawrence ‘Titus’ Oates reach the South Pole one month after Amundsen’s team, and discover the Norwegian flag. Even before our conception of the earth's form had taken definite shape, voyages to the South began. With little food and a makeshift tent they were force to eat the remaining huskies to survive. This AAE journey is regarded as the one of the greatest polar scientific expeditions of all times because of the detailed observations in magnetism, geology, biology, and meteorology. 1905-7 – International Geophysical Congress, meeting in London, decides to make Antarctica the main target of future exploration. 1940 – Little America III base is set up at the Bay of Whales under Richard Bryd. On January 30, a British Officer, Edward Bransfield sighted two high mountains covered with snow (later named Mount Bransfield) along Trinity Peninsula the northern most portion of the Antarctic Peninsula. Mawson and six others who had stayed behind to wait for Mawson and his men endured a second winter at the windiest place in the world before finally being rescued the following season. Despite having won the race without losing a single man, he was in many ways overshadowed by Scott, whose doomed march had made him a hero in his native Britain. 1935 – The first woman to set foot in the Antarctic continent was Caroline Mikkelsen, the wife of a Norwegian whaling captain, when she steps ashore at Vestfold Hills. Understanding mathematics and symmetry the Greeks theorized Antarktikos meaning “opposite of north”. Antarctica is the biggest wilderness on earth and still the least visited of all the continents. Robert F. Scott and two of his four companions set out for the South Pole pulling a sled. Their ship the Belgica became ice-bound off the Antarctic Peninsula, and they were forced to spend 13 months drifting in pack ice. Norwegian Roald Amundsen becomes the first explorer to reach the South Pole, beating his British rival, Robert Falcon Scott. Britain’s Vivian Fuchs team converted Ferguson farm tractors to cross the Antarctic from the Weddell Sea in the Fuchs Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition. Amundsen plants the Norwegian Flag on the South Pole. 1898 – The first party to live through the winter trapped in pack-ice at the Antarctic Peninsula under a Belgian Adrien de Gerlache and the Belgica expedition. It was mid-January 1912, and the 43-year-old Royal Navy officer was nearly 800 miles into a journey to one of the last unexplored places on the globe: the geographic South Pole. The nuclear power plant has a history of fire, radiation leakage, and shutdowns, until it is finally decommissioned in 1972. South Pole Expeditions Antarctica: the coldest, driest and wildest continent. On 9 January 1909, Shackleton, Frank Wild, Eric Marshall and Jameson Adams come within 97 miles of the South Pole, but the return trip almost costs them their lives. Pack ice prevented the whaler from reaching Elephant Island. 1989 Argentina ship Bahía Paraíso runs aground and sinks just outside Palmer Research Station on Anvers Island. In the process of returning to their winter quarters one of the Ross Sea support died of scurvy. 1840 Adelie Land was discovered by French explorer Jules Sébastien César Dumont d’Urville, who named it after his wife, Adélie. 1965 – Antarctica tourism for the public begins. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. No one had ever crossed this mountainous region. 1 November 1911 Scott’s main party sets out. Ross determined the approximate position of the South Magnetic Pole but was unable to reach it. Scott sets out in the spring for the South Pole. 1959 – Antarctic Treaty is signed in Washington, DC with the 12 leading participant countries in the International geophysical Year. Antarctica - Antarctica - History: Many nations were involved in the discovery and early exploration of Antarctica. Amundsen and Scott relied on vastly different forms of transport during their journeys. In 1909, Amundsen had announced a new expedition to navigate the ice floe-riddled waters of the Arctic to the North Pole. History; South Pole; South Pole. In July 1895, the Sixth International Geographical Congress was held in London for the primary purpose of rekindling interest in Antarctic exploration. 1916 – The Ross sea support party fared worse. Luxury cruises are charted to the Antarctic Peninsula. The Treaty states that Antarctica will be used for peaceful and scientific purposes. Mawson finally struggled back to Cape Dennison to see the relief ship, the Aurora, disappearing over the horizon. (Credit: Universal History Archive/Getty Images), Thanks to the speed of his dog teams, Amundsen’s party managed to race toward the Pole at a pace of over 20 miles per day. Inside you will find extensive biographical data on the early explorers in addition to significant statistics and examples of the philately of Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands. Scott, his friend Dr. Edward Wilson and another man Henry Bowers gamely continued the journey for another few days, but temperatures continued to plunge, and they were later caught in a blizzard only 11 miles away from one of their supply depots. Not a single life was lost. The ship carried tourists and scientists, and was evacuated before it sank. The world’s southernmost point has been continuously inhabited ever since, and its two earliest pioneers are now honored in the name of its permanent research facility: the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. It is the southernmost point on the surface of Earth and lies on the opposite side of Earth from the North Pole. In 1910, British adventurer Robert Falcon Scott (1868–1912) set out for the South Pole. By the time the bodies of Scott, Wilson and Bowers were found later that November, Roald Amundsen had already returned home in triumph and embarked on a lecture tour. The severely frostbitten Lawrence Oates followed a month later after sacrificing himself in a blizzard to avoid slowing down the team. 7th Century – Sailing south to where “white rock-like forms grew out of a frozen sea” a Raratongan traveler, Ui-te-Rangiara, was the first traveler below the Antarctic Circle according to Polynesian lore. In that year, Robert Falcon Scott attempted the first expedition from Antarctica's coastline to the South Pole. Erebus carrying 257 people onboard that included tourist and crew. 1929 – Richard Bryd and three others take off in a Ford monoplane from the Bay of Whales and head to the South Pole. Among those in the party were Raold Amundsen, Dr. Frederick Cook, and Henry Arctowski. Parties from Britain, Germany, and Sweden are organized. Norwegian Polar Institute - 1928 - present. During this expedition Mawson overcame starvation, poisoning, blizzards, and innumerable falls into gaping crevasses as he struggled back alone to the Winter Quarters at Cape Denison, following the deaths of his sledging companions Xavier Mertz and Belgrade Ninnis. 1902 – Robert Scott, Edward Wilson, and Ernest Shakelton leave McMurdo Sound for the first real attempt to reach the South Pole. “The goal was reached,” Amundsen wrote, “our journey ended.”, Over a month later on January 17, 1912, Scott and his weary British team finally reached the Pole. All three would perish in their tent just days later. © 2021 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Sian Flynn reveals how the race for Antarctic glory was run. The men planted the Norwegian flag, smoked celebratory cigars and posed for snapshots, but they only remained for a few days before beginning the arduous trek back to their base camp. Although exploration of Antarctica began in the mid-1800's, attempted exploration of the South Pole did not occur until 1901. After numerous attempts to walk and haul their lifeboats to open water the 28 men of the Endurance are forced to camp on floating ice for five months eventually made camp and waited until the pack ice broke up in the spring before taking the boats to Elephant Island. After spending the early part of 1911 laying down advance caches of food and supplies for their polar journeys, Amundsen and Scott’s expeditions took shelter and spent several months waiting out the dark and frigid Antarctic winter. On January 1908, Mawson and his team raised the British Flag over the geomagnetic South Pole. The machines quickly broke down, however, and his ponies grew weak in the cold and had to be shot. They were now less than 80 miles from the finish line, but a single question still loomed over their progress: would they be the first group of men in history to reach the South Pole, or the second? After a third attempt, with a Chilean steamer, Yelcho, the whole team was eventually rescued. 1978 – The first human born in Antarctica is from an Argentine base. American explorer Richard E. Byrd became the first person to fly over the South Pole, in 1926, and the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station was established thirty years later. 1899 – Cape Adare in Victoria Land had the first men to winter in pre-fabricated huts on the continent under Carsten Borchgrevink and a member of the Southern Cross expedition. 1911 – Douglas Mawson Australian Antarctic Expedition (AAE) departs Hobart aboard the Aurora bound for Macquarie Island. 2004. Icebreakers are used for the first time. Undeterred, Amundsen continued his wandering and eventually explored the Arctic both at sea and in a dirigible, which he used to reach the North Pole in 1926. The icebreaker Kronprins Haakon, delivered in 2018 is used in both the Arctic and Antarctic. As of 1909 the North Pole—yes, the North—was in his sights. 1821 – On February 7, Captain John Davis a sealer from Connecticut and his crew from the American sealing ship, Cecilia, claim to have landed on the Antarctic continent for less than a hour at Hughes Bay (64°01’S) looking for seals. And unlike Scott, whose expedition was burdened by its scientific obligations, Amundsen was focused only on reaching the Pole and returning safely. Amundsen, born in Borge, near Oslo, Watch more in this film series. Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen - Biographical notes 16th July 1872 - 18th June 1928. Large areas of coastline and hinterland are mapped. Before leaving on the expedition, he had vowed “to reach the South Pole and to secure for the British Empire the honor of this achievement.”, Scott’s mission was made all the more urgent by the knowledge that another explorer was seeking the Pole. 1908 – While Ernest Shakelton, Frank Wild, Eric Marshall, and Jameson Adams begin their attempt to reach the geographic south pole, others members of the same expedition including Australian Douglas Mawson and Edgeworth David, and a Scottish doctor Alistair McKay, set out from the winter quarters on Ross Island on their journey of over 1200 miles on foot, without animal support to reach the geomagnetic south pole. The ponies were not adapted to hauling on the soft snow, and the dogs were only used in support. 1841 – Great Britain sailor James Clark Ross sailed into what is now known as the Ross Sea. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! In 281 days, Shakelton’s were still 350 miles (560 km) from the coast. Scott used ponies as well as dogs. Since then, she has led lots of other exploration missions to both the North and South Pole. 1773 – The Antarctic Circle was crossed for the first time by Captain James Cook in the ships Resolution and Adventure. 1979 – Air New Zealand DC 10 crashes in to Mt. 1905-7 – International Geophysical Congress, meeting in London, decides to make Antarctica the main target of future exploration. He was one of the greatest figures in the field of polar exploration. “This is an awful place and terrible enough for us to have labored to it without the reward of priority.”. At 82 degrees south, within 450 miles (720 km) they are forced to return home. In 1992, Bancroft visited the South Pole for the first time, becoming the first woman in history to travel to both Poles. While on the sledging expedition Ninnis, six dogs and the sled containing most of the food and equipment slipped down a large crevasse, and disappeared. South Pole. 15 October 1911 Amundsen sets out to reach the South Pole with five men, four sledges and 52 dogs, travelling to pre-prepared depots and killing dogs for food as they go. 1831 – The North Magnetic Pole had been discovered. Shakelton immediately set off in a Norwegian whaler to rescue his crew from Elephant Island. Two others attempted to make a path to Cape Evans across newly formed sea ice, they were never seen again. This expedition is to lay the foundation for modern oceanography. Molluscs, cormorants, penguins and other species were the fatal victims of that disaster. Norwegian Roald Amundsen leads a five man expedition that reaches the South Pole for … 1957- International Geophysical Year begins with Antarctica as the main study. Create a free website or blog at The Norwegians set out 13 days before Scott and had added the advantage of 59 husky dogs hauling their sleds. Amundsen would later write that he “had the same feeling that I can remember as a little boy on the night before Christmas Eve—an intense expectation of what was going to happen.” Finally, on December 14, 1911, he and his companions arrived at the South Pole. National Geographic. Discover more about the race to reach the South Pole. 1911 – Amundsen party set up their base at the Bay of Whales that was 69 miles (105 km) closer to the pole than Scott’s base on Ross Island. The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface. The remaining party was rescued by the Aurora in January 1917. Finally, on October 20, 1911, conditions improved enough for his five-man team to begin their dash to the Pole. Explorers continued to venture to Antarctica in the years after Amundsen and Scott’s legendary race, but it was not until 1956 that an expedition once again stood on the South Pole. Under the leadership of Shakeltons second in command, Frank Wild, most of the party spent 105 days of the bitter winter living under upturned boats eating seal meat. Scott employed a combination of sled dogs, Manchurian ponies and even a few motorized tractors. 1909. In 1911, British explorer Robert Falcon Scott and Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen both aimed to be the first to reach the South Pole. Studying astronomy the ancient Greeks theorized of the southern region of earth. Scott had been beaten to the Pole, but his troubles were only beginning. To their dismay, they spotted the remnants of Amundsen’s camp just as they were approaching. “Our chance still holds good if we can put the work in, but it’s a terribly trying time.” It was mid-January 1912, and the 43-year-old Royal Navy officer was nearly 800 miles into a journey to one of the last unexplored places on the globe: the geographic South Pole. Mawson became very ill of Vitamin A poisoning from eating husky dog livers. Two polar adventurers are attempting the same South Pole journey that claimed the lives of British explorer Captain Robert Scott and his men in 1911-1912. All Rights Reserved. January, Australian Douglas Mawson reaches the South Magnetic Pole. (Credit: Bettmann / Getty Images), Scott’s frozen ordeal had begun over a year earlier, when his ship Terra Nova had arrived on Ross Island in Antarctica’s McMurdo Sound. Since I was one of the five who, on that December afternoon, took part in this unveiling, it has fallen to my lot to write -- the history of the South Pole. The ship was blown away from its moorings and the shore party was left with no supplies, except what remained in the hut from previous expeditions. Captain Cook’s crew eventually circumnavigates Antarctica crossing the Antarctic Circle 3 times. In the early 1910s, explorers Roald Amundsen and Robert Falcon Scott engaged in a frantic, and ultimately tragic, race to be the first man to reach the South Pole. His expedition had scientific objectives, which included finding out what type of rocks made up the landscape. Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. 1874 – On a four-year (1872-1876) scientific expedition, the HMS Challenger crosses the Antarctic Circle and is the first steamship to ever do this. With frost bite, ‘Titus Oates” realizes that he was slowing the party down, and walked out of his tent never to be seen again. On December 14, 1911, Norwegian Roald Amundsen became the first person to reach the South Pole. The number of bases on the continent is increased from 28 to 40 bases. He had hoped to be the first man to achieve the feat, but after the American explorers Frederick Cook and Robert Peary both claimed to have beaten him to the punch, Amundsen secretly changed his plans. From Dawson 1908 expedition with Shakelton, Dawson wanted to explore the Area of Antarctica south of Australia. Erebus in Antarctica. Amundsen, meanwhile, relied solely on skis and sled dogs to cross the tundra. A base is set up at Little America. December 14th. 1772 – Ice-bound islands in the southern Indian Ocean now identified as Iles Kerguelen were discovered by Yves Joseph de Kerguelen-Tremarec. 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